Different types of lighting in film have been a subject of discussion for a long time and have made a significant contribution to the aesthetic development of cinematography.
As for the directors, each director has their signature cinematographic style based on the type of Lighting they choose.
No matter what lighting techniques are used, it is one of the essential elements that give the camera work its essence and make it feel alive.
The different types of Lighting in Film that are presented in this article will help you appreciate the fantastic effort that movie directors and filmmakers are putting into producing notable films for us to enjoy watching; not only that, this article will also enlighten you on what Lighting in Film means and why you need to learn about Lighting in Film.
What is Lighting in Film?
Lighting is the term used by cinematographers to describe how a scene or a shot is lit on the Film or video camera.
The Lighting of a set is, of course, what the viewer sees, and lighting design is the method and equipment used to create that effect.
A better understanding of Lighting in Film will help you know what is happening on screen when watching movies at home.
It will also help you recognize Lighting in films while being shot and direct your films more effectively.
Lighting encompasses the equipment used to create it and the language used to describe it through rules, guidelines, and techniques.
Using this language correctly to articulate your vision can be an invaluable aid in shooting your Film or video.
Why Would You Need to Learn About Lighting?
Lighting is an essential aspect of making your film look good and learning about it can help you make your film stand out.
Lighting has been used in Film for practically as long as Film has existed. Lighting is a great way to add depth and interest to a scene and make it look more professional.
There are various types of Lighting, and they each have their uses. Experiment with the classes, try them out and see what they do to the overall look of your scenes.
Difference Between Film Lighting and Digital Lighting
Film lighting is, as the name implies, when you use actual Film in a camera to record video or images.
Digital Lighting is when you use a digital camera or computer to record video or photos. That sounds simple enough, but what is considered digital and film lighting is not always clear.
The most significant difference between these two types of Lighting is that with Film, the photographer has total control over where the light goes and how it is being used for each shot taken.
With digital, the photographer does not have complete control over where the light goes and how it’s being used for each shot taken.
Now the question is: what are the different types of Lighting in Film? The next segment answers that question.
Classification of Lighting in Film
In basic terms, there are three classes of Lighting in Film: hard light, soft light, and ambient Lighting.
- Hard light is what you use when you want to create shadows on something or someone. It’s straightforward to recognize because if you look at the object or person being lit, the light itself is noticeable. An excellent example of hard Lighting would be using a flash on a camera.
- Soft Lighting: this type of film lighting is excellent for adding shine to objects and people. This lighting makes everything seem shinier and adds depth to an object or person because the shadows aren’t as noticeable. An example of soft Lighting would be natural sunlight coming through a window.
- Ambient Lighting: is used when you don’t want either hard or soft lights; instead, you want something in between. This type of lighting works great for interviews because it’s not too bright or dark.
Different Types of Lighting in Film
There are different types of Lighting in Film, and they can not function without each other. They are listed below.
1. Key Lighting
Essential Lighting is one of the different types of Lighting in Film and the first light placed in a scene to reveal crucial information about the value and shape of the set, performers, and props.
It’s generally placed at the camera’s left and is used as a starting place for other lights illuminating the scene.
Essential Lighting helps define the characters’ physical features(skin texture, hair color) and facial expressions (facial highlights).
This can also create silhouettes, accentuating profile shapes by throwing a vital light source from the camera’s left.
Key Lighting is controlled with a softbox or umbrella, providing even Lighting across the face with no accurate detail being revealed outside of facial contours. The overall dynamics are softened to create a feeling of comfort and security.
Key Lighting is used more for filming drama but can also be used for comedy; this depends on the director’s intentions.
2. Rim Lighting
Rim lighting is also a different type of Lighting used in Film and photography. It is most commonly used on actors and actresses to add dramatic Lighting to their faces while leaving the rest of their bodies in the dark.
We can achieve rim lighting by placing a lamp or flash directly behind the subject or using a reflector that bounces light off the subject’s back. The illumination then appears as a bright rim around the edge of the subject’s body.
Rim lighting is also used to separate a subject from its background. This is often accomplished with an assistant holding a reflector behind the actor, which reflects light into the camera lens, separating them from whatever lies behind them.
In cinematography, rim lighting can also be used to separate characters from their environments, as seen in “Star Wars,” “Blazing Saddles,” and many other films.
Lighting that comes from behind and to the subject’s side, called top-side Lighting, has similar effects but tends to produce harsher shadows because no shadows are being cast from below by other objects.
Top-side Lighting is often used when showing an intense emotion or when trying to portray depression or madness.”
Backlighting is a traditional Hollywood method of illuminating actors in a scene. In this type of lighting, the primary light source is coming from behind the actor.
For example, the movie star could be sitting in their car, and there would be a single street lamp on the side of the road behind them.
The light from this street lamp would shine through the window behind the actor and cast a shadow on their face, creating dramatic lighting effects. It also makes their face stand out from the background.
Filmmakers use backlighting to create mood, add drama to a scene, or highlight an actor’s features.
Many directors consider it essential for creating suspenseful scenes and establishing time and place (e.g., nailing down that it is nighttime in a car driving through a forest).
Although backlighting can be somewhat effective, it can sometimes draw attention away from the main subject if not used correctly.
Parallelism is one of the different types of Lighting in Film and is a lighting style that replicates natural light.
This means the two light sources, the key, and fill, are placed at a similar distance from the subject as the nearest window or other natural light sources. The result is a realistic, flattering look often used in Film.
Parallelism can be achieved with two lights or one. If using two lights, one is placed to one side and slightly behind the subject, and the second is placed opposite the first, slightly behind and to the other side. This forms a “V” light pattern across the face or body.
Another everyday use of Parallelism is to combine it with rim lighting for a three-point lighting setup.
A large diffused reflector with a honeycomb grid placed over the key light can provide both softening and highlight definition on a person’s cheekbones (the rim lighting) while still achieving Parallelism by having another light placed directly behind.
The result is a beautiful, diffused look. This isn’t always appropriate, though! Parallelism works best when you’re shooting at eye level, which means you have to be just above your subjects’ eye level (if you’re standing) or just below (if you’re sitting).
5. Front Lighting
Front Lighting is used to create an illusion of the subject being in a well-lit room even when it is dark. This is achieved by placing the light source to the side and front of the issue.
Front Lighting gives a three-dimensional effect, as it shows off the shape and contours of the subject.
Front Lighting is often used for dramatic effect to make your subject look sinister or more powerful.
Front Lighting can also give off a warm glow, which helps if you are trying to create a relaxed, homey atmosphere.
This type of Lighting can be used with natural light or artificial light.
It is best to use soft light sources such as candles and lanterns rather than harsh light sources like fluorescent lights or bare bulbs when using artificial light.
Front Lighting can be achieved by setting up a single lamp and then positioning it on one side of the subject, facing them directly or on two sides at once, with one behind and one in front.
If you are using this type of Lighting outside, you can use open shade instead of direct sunlight.
Available shade is diffused sunlight with some protection from direct sunlight. Open shade could come from trees on either side of you or tall buildings with a shadowing effect.
I hope this article helped you identify some of the different types of Lighting in Film and their main characteristics.
Remember that the way you light your shot is the first step in creating a mood; with a little experimentation and practice, you will be able to make well-lit shots look amazing!